What does obligate intracellular pathogen mean

Analogously, secreted hemophores can remove heme from Hb or hemopexin and deliver heme to bacterial cells through binding with hemophore receptors.

During infection with intracellular pathogenic microorganisms, the element iron is required by both the host cell and the pathogen that inhabits the host cell. Velayudhan, M.

what does obligate intracellular pathogen mean

Ward, J. How to Make a Plant Cell Model. Yang, and C.

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It is a theory that explains the evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotes by the formation of a mutualistic relationship with an intracellular parasite, which later transformed and evolved to become the present-day mitochondria. Banerjee, A. Nucleolus Function.

what does obligate intracellular pathogen mean

Intracellular pathogens can acquire iron because macrophages contain iron-proteins such as transferrin, lactoferrin, ferritin, hemopexin, hemoglobin, or hemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes, in its different compartments. Stages of Mitosis. Iron sources and mechanisms of uptake, transport, and regulation used by intracellular parasites. On the other hand, C. Some groups of researchers have suggested that Fe is transported via this protein into the pathogen-containing phagosome, causing the death of the pathogen by catalyzing the formation of reactive oxygen species ROS , while others argue for Fe efflux from the phagosome, restricting pathogenic growth by Fe deprivation [ 23 , 24 ].

Al-Younes, T. Human infection with C.

what does obligate intracellular pathogen mean

One study revealed that the Fur-regulon in C. Table 1: Multicellular Vs.

Obligate Intracellular Parasite: Definition, Characteristics, and Examples

Hicks, R. During infection, pathogens are capable of altering the battlefield to increase the abundance of potential Fe sources. Fast, K.