Soil everywhere tends to stay at a relatively constant temperature, the yearly average, and can be used with heat pumps to heat a building in winter and cool a building in summer. This clean burning fuel can mean a significant reduction of pollution in cities.
Most of these renewable energies depend in one way or another on sunlight. Other forms of energy.
However, currently each of these energy forms is significantly more expensive than fossil fuels, which will lead to economic dislocations and hardship if they become the only power source for the future. Each of these is discussed in some detail with the final result being that each suffers from one or another significant drawback and cannot be relied upon at this time to solve the upcoming energy crunch. The movement of the atmosphere is driven by differences of temperature at the Earth's surface due to varying temperatures of the Earth's surface when lit by sunlight.
Biomass is the term for energy from plants. Energy left over from the original accretion of the planet and augmented by heat from radioactive decay seeps out slowly everywhere, everyday.
This form of energy can lessen the need for other power to maintain comfortable temperatures in buildings, but cannot be used to produce electricity. There are many forms of renewable energy. The range is from solar water heating with solar collectors or attic cooling with solar attic fans for domestic use to the complex technologies of direct conversion of sunlight to electrical energy using mirrors and boilers or photovoltaic cells.
Unfortunately the most popular is the burning of trees for cooking and warmth.
Unfortunately these are currently insufficient to fully power our modern society. Hydrogen can be burned as a fuel, typically in a vehicle, with only water as the combustion product.
These energy sources are often non-centralized, leading to greater consumer control and involvement. This energy can be collected and converted in a few different ways.
Hydroelectric energy. These tools and more can help make the transition from non-renewable to renewable and environmentally friendly energy.
Solar energy is the direct conversion of sunlight using panels or collectors. However, none of these is sufficiently developed or abundant enough to substitute for fossil fuels use.
Biomass energy is stored sunlight contained in plants.