Crude Oil Distillation. Petrol, or gasoline, condenses out at around 110 degrees, while petroleum gas is drawn off at the top.
Actual refinery operations are very complicated. The quantities of the fractions initially produced in an oil refinery don't match up with what is needed by consumers. The resulting vapors and liquids are discharged into distillation towers , the tall, narrow columns that give refineries their distinctive skylines.
This increase in volume is called processing gain.
There are two ways to learn here: In the early days, crude oil was heated in a tall distillation tower and basic fuels were produced under high heat. Separation In the first step, molecules are separated through atmospheric distillation i.
It's formed mostly from miniature sea life that lived hundreds of millions of years ago. Fluid catalytic cracking, or "cat cracking," is the basic gasoline-making process.
Both incoming crude oil and the outgoing final products are stored temporarily in large tanks on a tank farm near the refinery. Heavy on the bottom, Light on the top Separation starts by pumping crude oil into pipes running through hot furnaces and heating the oil to vaporize it.
Three major types of operation are performed to refine the oil into finished products: Yet refineries of today had surprisingly humble origins.
Some refineries also have cokers, which use heat and moderate pressure to turn residuum into lighter products and a hard, coallike substance that is used as an industrial fuel. This cracking is often a combined physical heat and pressure and chemical process where the hydrocarbon molecules that make up crude oil are literally cracked apart.
The heavy liquids are changed into simple and more useful liquids and gases. Turning Crude Oil Into Fuels How can science and technology convert the decomposed carbon-rich juices of ancient life into gasoline to power our vehicles plus make the asphalt to pave our roads?
These are piped into a tall cylinder, known as a fractional tower. Crude oil needs to be processed before it can be used See Close-Up: