In other words, if someone wants to be in state B when he is in state A, he must regard being in state A as worse than being in state B. The living being remains, always, a contemplative being, for it owes its existence to a prior, intelligible principle; but the mode of contemplation on the part of the living being is divided into three distinct stages, rising from a lesser to a greater level of intelligible ordering.
So, a person can be hungry or tired and be cognitively aware that he is in this state, where cognitive awareness includes being able to conceptualize that state. Plotinus' last words, recorded by Porphyry, more than adequately summarize the goal of his philosophy: Traites , 9 volumes, French translation with commentaries by Luc Brisson and J.
It must be understood, however, that this differentiation does not constitute a separate Soul, for as we have already seen, the nature and essence of all intelligible beings deriving from the One is twofold -- for the Intelligence, it is the ability to know or contemplate the power of the One, and to reflect upon that knowledge; for the Soul it is to contemplate the Intelligence, and to give active form to the ideas derived from that contemplation.
In reply to the possible objection that a potency is not an image of actuality, Plotinus will want to insist that potencies are functionally related to actualities, not the other way around, and that therefore the affective states of non-cognitive agents can only be understood as derived versions of the affective and cognitive states of souls closer to the ideal of both, namely, the state of Intellect.
Human Psychology and Ethics The drama of human life is viewed by Plotinus against the axis of Good and evil outlined above. Last Name. Through the soul's 'gift' of determinate order to the pure passivity that is matter, this matter comes to 'exist' in a state of ever-changing receptivity, of chaotic malleability.
In general, if A is virtually B, then A is both simpler in its existence than B and able to produce B. The Soul The power of the One, as explained above , is to provide a foundation arkhe and location topos for all existents VI. The 'power' of the One is not a power in the sense of physical or even mental action; the power of the One, as Plotinus speaks of it, is to be understood as the only adequate description of the 'manifestation' of a supreme principle that, by its very nature, transcends all predication and discursive understanding.
Consider the analogy of three-dimensionality and solidity. Being differentiates the unified thought of the Intelligence -- that is, makes it repeatable and meaningful for those existents which must proceed from the Intelligence as the Intelligence proceeds from the One.
Gurtler, G. In fact, the first principle of all, the Good or the One, must be beyond thinking if it is to be absolutely simple.
Plotinus is considered to be the founder of Neoplatonism. A Bibliography 1950—2000 , Leiden: The students and attendants of Plotinus' lectures must have varied greatly in philosophical outlook and doctrine, for the Enneads are filled with refutations and corrections of the positions of Peripatetics , Stoics , Epicureans , Gnostics , and Astrologers.
One must keep in mind, however, that the individual souls and the Higher Soul are not two separate orders or types of soul, nor is the "living being" a third entity derived from them.